It’s created from information held in your credit report, also known as your credit file.
Your credit score can differ between lenders or even between different products from the same lender, depending on the criteria used in assessing you as a potential customer.
The information held on your credit file and your credit application for might be used to decide:
- Whether to lend to you
- How much to let you borrow
- How much interest to charge you
The most recent information on your file will have the most impact, as lenders are most interested in your current situation.
If your credit report shows a few missed payments, you might be charged higher interest by lenders or might not be eligible for some loans.
This is because lenders believe they might be taking a higher risk when lending to you.
Your credit history can affect your ability to get things such as insurance or start mobile contracts.
Regularly checking your report is a great idea, as it can help you spot any fraudulent activity or mistakes on your report.
It's a recognised fact that Service personnel have difficulty accessing some financial products because of your mobility and time outside of the UK. See the Guidance Notes offering practical help if you're applying for secured (mortgages) or unsecured loans (credit cards, motor finance, etc) produced by the MOD and trade representatives of the financial services sector.
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How to check my credit score
There are three main credit scoring agencies in the UK. Each charge to access their services, although it's possible to access for free through their partner site.
Clear score, MSE, Credit Club and Noddle provide the same detail as in your full credit report; although there can be about a two-month delay in information being updated on the free sites.
These credit agencies are likely to market a variety of loans to you, which is partly how they’re able to operate for free.
If you’re looking to borrow money, it’s best to shop around for the best deals before accepting borrowing offered through these sites, as cheaper loans might be available elsewhere.
Credit score membership
A subscription membership with one of the main credit agencies, can allow you to gain more information on your credit history.
Some of the memberships on offer give you access to agents, who can look into your file.
But remember to set up a reminder to cancel the membership before it starts to cost you too much.
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Full statutory credit report
You have the legal right to see a copy of your credit report for £2.
You can request this from any of the agencies above, all three agencies might hold slightly different information on you.
Your statutory report will give you the most up-to-date information.
What information is in a credit report?
Each agency holds slightly different information about you, so it’s worth checking all three for a more accurate picture.
In general, your file will include:
- Name, address and date of birth
- Some search footprints on your file, such as credit applications
- Financial links to other people for example, a joint loan or bank account
- Any late/missed payments or defaults
- How much money you owe to lenders
- Any County Court Judgments (CCJs) against you
- If you’re on the electoral register at your current address
- If you have been declared bankrupt or entered an IVA (Individual Voluntary Arrangement).
It won’t include the following information:
- Your salary
- Student loans
- Medical history
- Criminal record
- Council tax arrears
- Parking or driving fines
However, you might be asked for this information when applying for a loan or contract.
They might then choose to use this information alongside your credit report to assess you.
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What is a good credit score?
Different lenders have their own standards for rating credit scores.
However, if you have a good score with one of the main credit reporting agencies, it’s more than likely you’ll have a good credit score with your lender.
A good credit score with:
- Call Credit is scoring 4 out of 5
- Equifax is scoring over 420 out of 700
- Experian is scoring over 880 out of 999
But remember: your credit score doesn’t guarantee that you’ll be approved for credit or offered the lowest interest rates.
This is because a lender’s decision is not made solely on score.
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How long will it take to improve my credit score?
In general, credit history is built up slowly over time as you increase the number of on-time payments you make.
The longer the bill goes unpaid, the greater the likely impact on your credit score. Keep a close eye on your credit score to help spot issues.
Most negative marks on file will remain on your file for at least six years, such as late payments and CCJs.
However, there are some quick improvements in the next section, that you can make today to begin raising your credit rating.
How can I improve my credit score?
If you have a low credit rating, rest assured there are several things you can do to start improving your score today:
- Register on the electoral roll: if your name’s not on there, you’ll find it much harder to get credit. You can register to vote online or by post.
- Check for mistakes on your file: even having just a slightly wrong address can have an impact on your score. So, make sure you check all the details and report any incorrect information immediately.
- Pay your bills on time: paying on time a phone landline or internet contract, is a great way to prove to lenders that you’re capable to managing finances effectively.
Check if you are linked to another person: as having a spouse, friend or family member’s credit rating linked to yours through a joint account, could affect your personal rating if they have a poor score.
Check for fraudulent activity: if something on your credit report is incorrect or doesn’t apply to you – i.e. if someone applied for credit in your name without your knowledge, contact the credit reference agency immediately to have your file updated.
County Court Judgements (CCJs): receiving any court judgements for debt, will have a serious impact on your credit score. If you’re having problems keeping up with payments, seek debt advice.
High levels of existing debt: ideally you should eliminate any outstanding debt before applying for new credit. As banks, building societies and credit card companies might be hesitant about lending you more if you already have a lot of existing debt.
Moving home a lot: lenders feel more comfortable if they see evidence that you have lived at one address for a considerable period. Be sure to bear this in mind.
If you’re struggling to improve your score, it might be worth considering signing up to a one month free trial membership offered by the main credit agencies. Back to top
Consider getting a Credit-building card
If you have a poor credit history, you might want to consider a credit-builder credit card.
Beware that the interest rates charged are much higher than standard credit cards.
Typically, you’ll be paying over 30% in interest a year, so try to pay off any balance in full each month.
Otherwise you might end up in debt that you struggle to get out of which could harm your credit score even further.
Credit limits on these types of cards are typically low.
See recommendations for the best cards to rebuild your credit score on the Money Saving Expert Website.
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Avoid expensive credit repair companies
You might see adverts from firms that claim to repair your credit score.
Most simply advise you on how to obtain your credit file and improve your credit rating - but you don’t need to pay for that, you can do it yourself.
Some might claim that they can do things - legally - they can’t, or even encourage you to lie to the credit reference agencies.
Don’t even consider using such firms.
Try and consider every possible option before using such firms.
If you need help, see Where to get help if you are in debt.
How to report and fix any mistakes on your file
If you spot any mistakes on your credit history report, challenge them by reporting them to the credit reference agency.
They have 28 days to remove the information or tell you why they don’t agree with you.
During this time, the ‘mistake’ will be marked as ‘disputed information’ and lenders aren’t allowed to rely on it when assessing your credit rating.
It’s also best to speak directly with the credit provider you believe responsible for the incorrect entry.
Credit reference agencies rely on information provided by lenders and often the lender is in the best position to resolve this.
If there’s information on your file that’s accurate but doesn’t reflect your current situation - for example, you got into debt problems when you lost your job but you’re back in work now - you can add a ‘notice of correction’ to your credit report.
This is a statement of up to 200 words about what happened.
Find out more on correcting personal information on your file on the Information Commissioner's Office website.
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Students and young borrowers
You might think that the strongest credit report would be one showing only your personal information with no record of any borrowing or missed payments.
However, having no credit history can be as bad as having a poor credit history.
This is because lenders don’t have any historical information about how you manage your money, making it harder to assess your level of risk.
Missing payments for your phone bill or utility payments will affect your credit score, however there are some things that won’t, such as:
- The previous occupants of your address
- Just because you live with someone doesn’t mean you’re linked
- Student loan repayments (except for students who started university before 1998 under the original loans system and defaulted)
However, you should be able to build up a good credit score if you show you that you’re managing your money well when you apply for and use credit.
Why should I care about my Credit score now?
Having a good credit rating can be crucial if you ever want to apply for things such as:
- Buying a home
- Landing your dream job
- Getting a mobile phone contract
So, the key is to get started on improving your credit score sooner, rather than later.
As a good credit score, will benefit you in countless ways throughout your life.
For example, if you’re applying for a student bank account, your credit report will impact the amount of interest-free overdraft available to you.
Or if you decide to apply for a student credit card, lenders will use your credit report to decide a suitable credit limit for you.
You might stay registered to vote at:
- Your family home
- As a student at a different term-time address
When you apply for credit, lenders will check your name and address against the electoral roll, so it’s important to register to vote as it can help boost your score.
If you got rejected it’s best to check you score as if you continue to get rejected, your score could go down.
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Where can I find more information?
For additional help and advice on ways to improve your credit score and chance of borrowing: